Minggu, 20 November 2011

Tipe If-clause, Wish Beserta Fakta ,dan 10 contoh Conditional sentence

 Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1

→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.
Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future
Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.
Conditional Sentence Type 2
→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)
Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

Conditional Sentence Type 3

→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.
Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

 Conditional Sentences Type I.

  1. If Caroline and Sue prepare the salad, Phil will decorate  the house.
  2. If Sue cuts the onions for the salad, Caroline will peel  the mushrooms.
  3. Jane will hover the sitting room if Aaron and Tim move the furniture.
  4. If Bob tidies up the kitchen, Anita will clean the toilet.
  5. Elaine will buy the drinks if somebody helps her carry the bottles.
  6. If Alan and Rebecca organise the food, Mary and Conor will makethe sandwiches.
  7. If Bob looks after the barbecue, Sue will let the guests in.
  8. Frank will play the DJ if the others bring  along their CDs.
  9. Alan will mix the drinks if Jane gives him some of her cocktail recipes.
  10. If they all do their best, the party will be great.


Complete the Conditional Sentences Type II.

    If I played the lottery, I would have a chance to hit the jackpot.
    If I hit the jackpot, I would be rich.
    If I were rich, my life would change completely.
    I would buy a lonely island, if I found a nice one.
    If I owned a lonely island, I would build a huge house by the beach.
    I would invite all my friends if I had a house by the beach.
    I would pick my friends up in my yacht if they wanted to spend their holidays on my island.
    We would have great parties if my friends came to my island.
    If we liked to go shopping in a big city, we would charter a helicopter.
    But if my friends' holidays were over, I would feel very lonely on my lonely island.

Complete the Conditional Sentences Type III.

  1.   If the midfielders had passed the ball more exactly, our team would have had   

        more  chances to attack.
  2.   If the forwards had run faster, they would have scored more goals.
  3.  Their motivation would have improved if they had kicked a goal during the first half.
  4.  The fullbacks would have prevented one or the other goal if they had marked their 

  5.  If the goalie had jumped up, he would have caught the ball.
  6.  If the referee had seen the foul, he would have awarded a penalty kick to our team.
  7.  Our team would have been in better form if they had trained harder the weeks    

  8.  The game would have become better if the trainer had sent a substitute in during  

       the second half.
  9.   If it had been a home game, our team would have won the match. 

 10.  If our team had won the match, they would have moved up in the league.

1. Penggunaan Wish/hope dalam conditional sentences

Verb wish dan hope sama-sama berarti berharap, tetapi penggunaannya dalam kalimat sangat berbeda. Hope digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi atau akan mungkin terjadi. Sebaliknya, wish digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang pasti tidak terjadi atau tidak akan mungkin terjadi. Hope dapat diikuti oleh verb dalam sembarang tensis; wish tidak dapat diikuti oleh verb dalam simple present tense atau modal auxiliary simple present tense.
Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan wish dan hope pada contoh-contoh di bawah ini:
  1. We hope that they can come. (kita berharap bahwa mereka bisa datang). Dalam kalimat ini subject we tidak tahu apakah they bisa datang atau tidak. Tetapi, ada kemungkinan bahwa they bisa datang.
  2. We wish that they could come. (kita berharap bahwa mereka bisa datang). Di sini, we sudah tahu bahwa they tidak bisa datang. Faktanya adalah: they can’t come.
  3. I hope that they came yesterday. (saya berharap kamu datang kemarin). Di sini, I tidak tahu apakah they datang atau tidak kemarin.
  4. I wish that they had come yesterday. (saya berharap bahwa mereka datang kemarin). Di sini, I sudah tahu bahwa they didn’t come yesterday. Faktanya adalah: they didn’t come yesterday.
Jadi, clause yang mengikuti wish clause pada prinsipnya adalah unreal conditional.
Penggunaan wish dalam unreal conditionals ada 3, yaitu: future wish, present wish, dan past wish.

a. Future wish

S + wish + (that) +
S + could + verb1
S + would +verb1
S + were + verb-ing
Note: Penggunaan relative pronoun thatadalah optional (bisa digunakan, bisa juga tidak):
  1. I wish my friend would visit me this afternoon. (Saya berharap teman saya akan mengunjungi saya sore ini). Faktanya: my friend will not come this afternoon.
  2. They wish that you could come to the party tonight. (Mereka berharap bahwa kamu bisa datang sebentar malam). Faktanya: you can’t come.
  3. Bobby wishes he were coming with Angelia. (Bobby berharap dia datang dengan Angelia). Faktanya: Bobby is not coming with Angelia.

b. Present wish

S + wish + (that) + S + verb2
  1. I wish I were rich. (Saya berharap saya kaya). Faktanya adalah: I am not rich.
  2. I wish I had enough time to finish my work. (Saya berharap saya punya cukup waktu untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan saya). Faktanya: I don’t have enough time to finish my work.
  3. John wishes that Ririn were old enough to be his girl friend. (John berharap bahwa Ririn cukup umur untuk menjadi pacarnya). Faktanya: Ririn is not old enough to be John’s girl friend.
  4. I wish I didn’t have to come to class today. (Saya berharap saya tidak harus pergi kuliah hari ini). Faktanya: I have to go to class today.
  5. I wish my TOEFL score were over 650 now. (Saya berharap nilai TOEFL saya sekarang lebih dari 650). Faktanya: my TOEFL score is not over 650 now.

c. Past wish

S + wish + (that) + S + have + verb3
S + could + have + verb3
  1. I wish I had washed my clothes yesterday. (Saya berharap saya telah cuci pakaian-pakaian saya kemarin). Faktanya: I didn’t wash my clothes yesterday.
  2. Irwan wishes that he had answered the questions well. (Irwan berharap bahwa dia telah menjawab soal-soal dengan baik). Faktanya: Irwan didn’t answer the questions well.
  3. Christian Ronaldo wishes that his team could have beaten the German team. (Christian Ronaldo berharap bahwa teamnya dapat mengalahkan team Jerman). Faktanya: Christian Ronaldo’s team couldn’t beat the German team.
  4. I wish you had been here last night. (Saya berharap kamu ada di sini tadi malam). Faktanya: you were not here last night.
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